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    Nalbuphine Hydrochloride is a synthetic opioid agonist-antagonist analgesic of the phenanthrene series. Chemically Nalbuphine Hydrochloride is 17-(Cyclobutylmethyl)-4,5α-epoxymorphinan-3,6α,14-triol hydrochloride. Molecular formula of Nalbuphine Hydrochloride is C21H28ClNO4 and molecular weight is 393.91.

    Nalbuphine Hydrochloride appears as a white to almost white powder that is soluble in Water and Ethanol, insoluble in Chloroform and Ether. Its melting point is about 230°C.

    Clinical Applications

    Nalbuphine Hydrochloride is indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate. Nalbuphine Hydrochloride can also be used as a supplement to balanced anaesthesia, for preoperative and postoperative analgesia and for obstetrical analgesia during labour and delivery.

    Mode of Administration

    Nalbuphine Hydrochloride is administered in injection form, as a solution (liquid) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin), intravenously (into a vein), or intramuscularly (into a muscle).

    Pharmacological Effects

    Nalbuphine Hydrochloride binds to kappa-, mu- and delta-opioid receptors but not to sigma-opioid receptors. This Opioid analgesic exerts its analgesic actions primarily through kappa-opioid-receptor agonism and partially through mu-opioid receptor agonism.

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